Because of its geographical position, Valcea County has many important natural resources:
Mountains with vast forests of conifers and deciduous trees where you can find bears, chamois, deer, does as well as mountain pastures where sheep breeding is the ancestral occupation of local people.
Hills, fruit orchards that provide apples, pears, plums, walnuts and cherries. From processed plums, it is produced the brandy of Hurezu and the brandy of Valcea. On the hills, farther to the south of the county vines are being cultivated from which is produced the wine of Dragasani.
Towards the southern border of the county, plains provide fertile land for agriculture, cultivating cereals (wheat, rye, corn) or industrial crops.
Valcea county wealth is complemented by mineral resources, important both for the county's economy and national economy. From Cataracterele Lotru, near Voineasa, are exploited isinglass, pegmatite quartz, and feldspar; chalkstone from the Bistrita quarry of the village Costesti; salt (sodium chloride) from Ocnele Mari; brown coal from Berbesti, Alunu, Copăceni; oil and gas from Băbeni, Madulari, Fauresti; mineral water springs from Călimăneşti, Baile Olanesti and Baile Govora.
Natural resources: forests, grasslands, arable land, water surfaces, stone quarries, salt, coal, petroleum (crude oil), petroleum gas , granite, limestone and sand;
Forestry: Forests of spruce, fir and pine, mixed forests of beech and coniferous (pine and spruce), beech, maple, ash, elm, oak and durmast.